Advertising, that ubiquitous part of our lives, is an intricate web weaving words, ideas and aesthetics together into an intertextual mix of literary, artistic, and musical elements as well as references from such disciplines as science, economics, and geography. With the growth of international trade and increasing globalization, advertising has also become a means of cultural exchange. The basic nature of advertising, the special characteristics of intertextuality, the astute use of translation techniques, and other rhetorical devices come together to create a new work, combining the basic tenets of the original advertisement into one that is appropriate to the norms of a new set of consumers, with the aim of creating trust and promoting sales amongst this new audience.
Some Problems in the Chinese Translation and Hong Kong Legal Provisions
Serena Sheng Hwa Jin and Sin King Kui
Legal translation is onerous work. Apart from making sure that the substance of the original text is carried over in the translation, attention must be paid to making the text as fluent and smooth as possible. However as many of the original English documents are extremely tortuous and complex, it is difficult to avoid sounding longwinded and obtuse in the Chinese translation. In addition, there is the problem of finding exact equivalents in Chinese for common law concepts. Under these conditions, sometimes it is necessary to create a new term or find a word with the meaning closest to the desired term and rely on the context to elicitate the desired common law concept. Constant discussion must be carried out throughout this process and decisions made on a case-by-case basis in the light of context and situational constraints.
Domestication and Foreignization in China's Literary Translation during the 1950s and 1960s
As political influences were considered a taboo topic for traditional Chinese translation studies, the period from 1949 to 1966 has always been to much-neglected subject of study. This essay discusses the influence ideological forces on the translations of this period. The traditional viewpoint is challenged that China ’s literary translation in the 1950s and 1960s was characterized by the domination of strategies of domestication. In this essay, investigations are made into the publications of the time and major translation theories arising during this period. Examples from four versions of Tess of the D’urbervilles in 1926, 1953, 1957, and 1984 by Zhang Guruo as well as political and Russian-Chinese literary translations are quoted as evidence to demonstrate that due to political influences, it was strategies of foreignization that was dominant during the 1950s and 1960s.
The Aesthetic Dialectical Movement in Translating Chinese Classical Poetry into English
In translation studies, we often come across dialectical duets such as faithfulness xin 信 and beauty mei 美 , expressiveness da 達 and remoteness li 離 as well as elegance ya 雅 and vulgarity su 俗 . These interlingual duets come into being due to the translated being pitted against the original. Moreover, there are still textual dialectical duets which originally exist in the text to be translated and also undergo transformation in the translation.
n Chinese literary critique, the textual dialectical duets are used to describe the construction and appreciation of poetic texts. Among them there are dominate four basic duets: yin 陰 and yang 陽 , you 有 and wu 無 , yan 言 and yi 意 , yi 抑 and yang 揚 . All the textual duets belong to two polarities: you 有 and wu 無 . They are started off into aesthetic movement by the translator’s aesthetic intervention, which is exerted with yi 抑 and yang 揚 . Sliding on the gradient continuum between two polarities you 有 and wu 無 , six duets, namely, shi 實 and xu 虛 , lou 露 and cang 藏 , dong 動 and jing 靜 , zhi 直 and qu 曲 , mi 密 and shu 疏 , zheng 正 and qi 奇 , have been chosen to illustrate the dialectical movement conducted by the translator in the course of translating Classical Chinese poems into English.