When translating a humoristic text which is permeated with a spirit of game, such as Les Contes drolatiques by Balzac, people may and even should imitate this humoristic and funny style instead of translating word for word. If the original text was written in an ancient language, it would be advisable to give some archaic connotation to the translation, in order to obtain similar effects of distanciation. But imitation and game have a limit: it would be unsuitable to use names and historic or literary allusions peculiar to the target language.
Curriculum Design and Compilation of Teaching Materials for Interpretation Studies
Two types of interpretation courses are currently being offered at the undergraduate level in Taiwan : 1. as an elective course offered in foreign language departments, and 2. as a core course offered in a translation studies department. The main objective of interpretation courses in foreign language departments is to enhance students' listening comprehension and speaking ability via the interpretation training. Since the major goal of a translation studies department is to train in-house interpreters for different companies and organizations, consecutive interpretation in the translation studies department is a core course while simultaneous interpretation has been offered as an elective.
The design of interpretation course plans, which includes course objective, course content, teaching progress, application of teaching materials and evaluation standards, should be based upon such issues as the availability of teaching resources, teaching environment, and students' language competency and knowledge level.
Teaching materials for interpretation courses should: 1. simulate actual interpretation environment for students, 2. enhance students' abilities to master terms that are idiomatic and frequently used, 3. integrate the learning of a language and acquiring of knowledge and terminology, 4. introduce narrative “conceptual message” prior to the teaching of informative “substantial message”, 5. focus on the logical linkage that connects each sentence in the verbal language, and 6. demonstrate different ways to express ideas in a precise manner.
On Qian Zhongshu's Idea of “Sublimation” and His Translation in Notes on Arts
In the essay the author estimates and praises Qian Zhongshu's idea of sublimation translation. He also makes a conscientious study of Qian's version in Notes on Art and sums up the features of versions: rearranging word order, putting the affirmative into the negative and vice versa, adding or subtracting words and phrases, restructing sentence patterns, turning a word into different Chinese expressions and using multiple word groups. All this show that Qian has set up a fine example for all translators.
From Realism to Romanticism – Cao Yu's Early Translation of Strife
Gilbert C.F. Fong
In 1929 the 20-year-old Cao Yu adapted John Galsworthy's Strife into Chinese for a student performance in Nankai Middle School in Tianjin . In this adaptation, which was probably based on Guo Moro's translation of the same play in 1925, Cao Yu chose to “domesticate” and sinicized the location and the characters' names. The plot tells the story of a strike in a mining town, the “strife” between labour and management. Galsworthy's play takes an objective and balanced view and concludes that the strike was totally unnecessary, for it only results in miseries and sufferings, especially among the workers and their families. In Cao Yu's hands, the strike is transformed into a test of wills between the two central characters, Anthony, the chairman of the board of the mining company and Roberts, the leader of the striking workers. The two central characters, bestowed with a tragic grandeur that shines above the rest of the compromising humanity, are made into heroic figures who have the courage to persevere to the end. The adaptation was indicative of the romantic leaning the young Cao Yu and was also in tune with the call for a strongman to save China during a time of social and political turmoil in the 1920's.
Wenyan or Baihua : On the Issue of Translation Language Since the Late Qing
Lawrence Wong Wang-chi
The present paper deals with the changing position of wenyan (classical Chinese) and baihua (vernacular Chinese) in translation since the late Qing, when China began to translate Western works in an unprecedented scale. At the first stage of this translation boom, as the Chinese still held a high esteem for traditional thinking, wenyan was considered the best language for translation. People generally believed that the first criterion to judge a piece of translation was how good the wenyan was. Occasionally, they would translate in the vernacular, when the works were targeted at the uneducated masses. This attitude changed drastically in the May Fourth period, when wenyan was mercilessly attacked. Baihua was regarded as the only language to be used for translation. But criticisms of the language began to appear almost immediately. People felt that baihua was highly inadequate as a medium to introduce modern Western ideas. They began to explore the ways to improve the language. One that most people found feasible was to adopt the Western ways of expression and sentence structures. Translation was taken as a means to import such Western elements. Hence for a brief period, we see very awkward expressions and structures in the translations. The paper looks into details the social and cultural environments in which such a change of attitude towards the translation language took place.