互文性是文學批評、語言學和翻譯研究的新課題，主要有顯性互文性和成構互文性兩大類。本文討論的糅雜是顯性互文性的一種形式，出現在詞彙層面，是過去的和現在的語彙的交織融匯，給人以似曾相識的印象。但糅雜與顯性互文性的其他形式如引用、鑲嵌不一樣，其用據通常無法考證，而後者則可以根據讀者／譯者的閱讀經驗而追本溯源。由於糅雜的語彙內涵更加豐富，更加耐人尋味，所以需要更多的創造性閱讀。本文以杜甫「秋興」詩八首之一為藍本，取W. J. B. Fletcher，吳鈞陶，Granmer-Byng的翻譯為例，分析糅雜在其中的運用和表現。文章指出，在顯性互文性中，糅雜最難翻譯。為了在譯文中體現糅雜所包蘊的豐富意象，譯者需要細心品味原文，進行創作性的閱讀，在目的語中找出同質的語彙，得體地表現在譯文之中。惟有這樣，詩歌翻譯才能做到「達」和「美」。
Overcoming Prejudice: On Translating Hong Kong Popular Fiction
Hong Kong popular fiction is an area of study that is often overlooked by both translation scholars and practicing translators. There are a number of reasons for this, chief among them being the disdain toward popular fiction frequently found in both academia and the literary world. This paper challenges this attitude, as it often causes translators to ignore the very real value that can be found in popular narratives. The paper begins with an overview of Western and Chinese scholarly writing on how to distinguish popular fiction from "high" or "elite" fiction. Arguments from the fields of popular culture studies and sociology are presented to support the contention that popular narratives can serve as valuable diagnostic tools for studying a society’s attitudes and beliefs. The concept of “worthiness” in translation is then discussed, drawing upon Steiner’s theory of the hermeneutic motion and other sources to examine what (or who) determines whether or not a given work is “worthy” of translation. Such a determination must be based on the interests and needs of the target-language audience, needs which will, by definition, be different to those of the source-language audience. It is argued that translators must avoid falling prey to prejudice against popular fiction if they are to serve their readers and to help preserve the full scope of Hong Kong's literary heritage.
Visualization and Gary Snyder's Translation of Cold Mountain Poems
Joan Qionglin Tan
Visualization is Gary Snyder's unique translation method used in translating the Tang hermit-poet Han Shan's poems. This consists of four steps: remembering, visualizing, writing and checking, and it emphasizes a visual process of the mind, which is very similar to Ezra Pound’s translation principle of phanopoeia and Snyder’s own poetic production method. The mastery of visualization makes a translated poem sound like an English poem, although some distortions are inevitable in the translation process because of the reworking. Thus, selection and adaptation principles appear to be more important for a translator before and after the visual activities in his mind and it is these which largely determine the quality of translation.
This article thoroughly examines Snyder's twenty-four translations of the Cold Mountain poems, and compares them with Arthur Waley's translations. It demonstrates that Snyder's success is not separate from his personality, cultural taste and mountain experiences influencing his visualization. Snyder's direct treatment of diction, style and form is in accordance with Han Shan's vernacular language and Chinese Chan poetic aesthetics. His selection and adaptation principles present Han Shan as an old mountain hermit in self-forgotten joy on Cold Mountain, a place of seclusion which becomes synonymous with Chan enlightenment. With regard to Snyder's inaccuracies, three aspects should be considered: first, errors caused by his misunderstanding of the original; second, deliberate naturalization of exotic terms; and third, unconscious replacement of the Chinese mountain scenery with his American wilderness. Therefore, the article contends that while Snyder's visualization provides a good paradigm for some poet-translators, it is not a method to be followed by all translators.